Middle east is one of the most conflicted zones of the world, and the most controversial topics to talk about. As you read this, Syria, Iraq, Libya and Yemen are on the blink of collapsing with three of them, Syria, Iraq and Yemen in civil war. And the most terrifying part is that these conflicts are giving rise to new radical militia every day and some of them seek world domination.
The conflict is fuelled by two giants, fighting each other, not directly but by backing oppositions in foreign soil. This kind of warfare is called Proxy Warfare. To understand the entire conflict in middle east we have to study the history of these two giants, Saudi Arabia and Iran.
Going back to the end of first world war, when the ottoman empire broke, it gave rise to many small factions. Among them the most prominent were the Al-Saud. They captured most of the land, which later came to be known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Soon after in 1938 massive oil reserves were found in the land. It is then that the Saudis made a prominent alliance with the US. The policy was simple Arms for Oil.
While the scene was particularly difficult for the Iranians. Iran being invaded multiple times in history with the last one being in 1953 by the United Kingdom. The Kingdom of Iran, being a predominant force in history as the Persian Kingdom were deeply distraught with the forceful political condition, started their own revolution in 1979. The Irani revolution gave rise to the Islamic Republic, a new autocratic, authoritarian government and the Islamic Republic of Iran was born. ayatollah Khomeini came to power and led an anti-US propaganda. The Iranis were particularly against the US because of their involvement with setting up of dictatorship in the region and helping UK with their coup of 1958. This gave Iranis a point of hatred for the Saudis who are dealing arms with the US.
The conflict between Saudis and Iranis can be reinvented on a religious turmoil. The Saudis claimed of being true Islamic cause of having both Mecca and Medina in their territory while Iran claimed to be supreme cause of their Shia population being dominant over Saudi’s Sunni population.
The real conflict began in 1980. Iraqi forces under the command of dictator Saddam Hussain started invading Iran to suppress their revolution, which was eventually unsuccessful but paved path for extremist ideas. This proved to be a prominent incident of the Gulf war. In 2003 the US invaded Iraq in what is known as Operation Desert Storm. In matter of days Saddam Hussein was captured and executed with the charge of crime against humanity. Without a stable government, the land gave birth to extremist groups who quickly took control of the land. Some of these terror organisations became dominant as ISIS and Jaysh Muhammad. The Iranis kept supporting the Shia insurgency while the Saudis kept backing the Sunni militants.
In Yemen too, Saudi troops Backed the Yemen military while Iran provided funds to the insurgent Houthi Rebels.
In Syria things get a bit intense as the Irani Military is providing full scale support to the terror organisation Hezbollah under the tyrant dictator Bashar Al Asad. While the Saudis seek help from the US in backing Syrian rebels which leave the US in a moral dilemma as the rebel group include ISIS fighters.
This map by Vox media show all the proxy wars the states are fighting against each other.
As the land controlled by the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) comes to depletion, new war seems imminent on the outlawed land. A war which might never end.